Un ‘nimale

Sukko è il termine celtico per indicare la scrofa, notare che sus ha la stessa radice di uios greco, cioè figlio, e suino e cane sono gli animali domestici che riescono a fare più figli di tutti gli altri in un singolo parto


in questo testo una spiegazione etimologica

It is interesting to note that two familiar Celtic terms expressing `pig’ show reflexes of a curious geminate *-kk- in stem-final position. *mokku- > Irish mutt f., Welsh each (collective; sg. mochyn), Breton moc’h (collective; sg. penmoc’h), Cornish mogh (late indw); cf. the Gaulish theonym Moccus *sukko- > Welsh hwch, Cornish hoch, Breton hooch (Welsh morhwch `dolphin’, Breton morhouc’h ‘ porpoise’); cf. Irish socc `ploughshare, snouel
The first of these does not yet have an identified Indo-European etymology, while the second shows phonological problems that com-plicate any interpretations based upon its obvious similarity to Indo-European *sii- (LEIA, S-159). The unexpected *-kk- of these forms has been interpreted either as a spontaneous lautsymbolisch’ (Wagner 1954, 92) or `expressive’ (LEIA, M-69) development, or soon indication of an ultimate non-IE origin (Hamp 1987; 1989). None of these views can be ruled out as logically impossible, but since for all practical purposes they are un-demonstrable it is worth continuing to examine these etyma in the hope of unearthing an analysis that keeps largely within the bounds of the known principles of Indo-European phonology and morphology. Hamp (1987) has suggested that there is reason to believe that the similarity between *mokku- and *sukko- originally encompassed not only the anomalous *-kk- but also the declension class. Hamp proposes that a third Celtic teen for ‘pig,’ Welsh hob, is ultimately to be traced back to the same stem as that underlying hwch. The final -b becomes comprehensible if we reconstruct the starting-point for hob as a velar-final u-stem (*suk(k)u-) upon which the vocalic stem-suffix *-d- was subsequently superimposed. With the addition of the 5-4- the original *-u-became incorporated into the stem as a semivowel (*sukw-11-), and the resulting *-kw- underwent the regular development into *-p- (thus *suk(k)u- > *(s1h)ukw-c7- > *(s/h)upel > hob). While the puzzle of the geminate *-kk- remains to be resolved, Hemp’s interpretation of the relation between hob and hooch renders it likely that the thematic declension of *sukko- is secondary and that at an earlier stage *sukko-
The semantic development seen in Irish socc seems to have taken place quite early, as this meaning seems to have also existed in Gaulish, evidently the source of French soc. See Kelly (1998, 464-70).
Erie L (1999) 161-164 © Royal Irish Academy

was declined as a u-stem (*suk(k)u-). *Suk(k)u- thus ultimately seems to have agreed in declension class with the other term for pig’, *mokku-.
*mokk- u-*sukk- u- *sukk-o-) *suk(k)- so- a
In short these two etymologically obscure stems for ‘pig’ share both an unexplained stem-final geminate *-kk- and a characteristic declension-class suffix *-u-. To the best of my knowledge it has not hitherto been suggested that the attested Celtic languages document a reflex of the Indo-European sequence 5-pk-. This fact is relevant, as the overall structure common to both *mokku- and *sukku-, viz. u-stem substantives that feature a stem-final velar and are used to refer to important domesticated animals, calls to mind the well-known Indo-European noun *peliu- • livestock ‘. Is it possible that the stems *mokku- and *sukku- originated as *X-pku, and *Y-pku’, i.e. as compounds containing, as their second component, a zero-grade manifestation of IE *peku-? Although in the absence of further evidence it, is impossible to state with certainty what the Celtic outcome of IE *-pk- was, in terms of general methodology it is attractive to seek the source of a highly marked phonological phenomenon such as the Celtic *-kk- in a highly restricted starting-point, such as is constituted by the co-occurrence of two Indo-European phonemes that would rarely have had occasion to come into contact. It is known that the Indo-European cluster 5-pt- yielded *-xt- in Celtic (cf. Irish secht, Welsh seith ‘seven’ < *septet) and that the outcome of *-ps-has fallen together with that of *-ks- (Thumeysen 1975, 139). It would not be surprising to find that the *p of the Indo-European cluster *-pk-is similarly reflected by a pre-Celtic velar (*-pk- > .*-xk-‘), in which case it is easy to imagine that the outcome of *-pli- ultimately assumed the shape *-kk- in Common Celtic. In short there is a possibility that the agreement that we find linking *mokku- and *suk(k)u- is not a coincidence: both may well have had their starting-points as compounds sharing a common second element—cf. the (thematized) Avestan compound kamna-fSuua- lew-herds’ (Yasna 46.2). The nature of the two first elements, *mo- and non, remains more difficult to ascertain. Each might in principle prove to be a loan-word from another language, incorporated by the early Celts into native compounds e*mo-stock’, *su-stock’). On the other hand, the *su- of *suk(k)u- suggests that we might see a reflex of the familiar Indo-European element *11,su- well.’ (thus *suk(k)u- < *H,su-pku-), although it must be granted that *H,su- is most typically, found in compounds serving as bahuvrihi modifiers (i.e. *Hsu-pku- ‘*well-castled ‘). Another, rather more speculative line of interpretation might take note

of the fact that, as we are reconstructing here an otherwise undocumented phonological sequence (viz. the Celtic reflex of *-pk-), the possibility exists that the sequence in question exercised phonological effects not observed elsewhere, or at least not yet identified elsewhere. It that becomes theoretically conceivable that the *su- of *suk(k)u- is a mani-festation of the familiar Indo-European term *surf- ‘pig’ and that the unique consonant cluster reconstructed above exerted a vowel-shortening (or, laryngeal-deleting) influence on a preceding syllable–*sii-pku- (*sull-pku-)’ *swine-stock ‘ > *siixku- (*su(H)xku-)> *suk(k)u-.5 If we ultimately prove to be justified in ascribing a vowel-shortening (or laryngeal-deleting) effect to the cluster *-kk- < *-pk- we will have available several interesting new avenues in addressing the problem of the related etymon *mokku-. It may, for example, be possible to compare the first component of *mokku- with the stem *m/f- underlying the Celtic adjective *moro- ‘ great ‘ (Irish mar, men. (comparative md, superlative m0(a)m), Welsh mawr)—hence *mokku- may have originated as *me”- pku-‘ *great-stock ‘ (perhaps in reference to a domesticated animal larger than the ovicaprids). At the same time another potential interpretation is provided by the etymologically obscure Irish mat (nuita)’ sow’ (evidently < *mon, or *mant-), in which one might well be inclined to seek a stem *mo- capable of acting as the first component of *mokku-. *(moH-?)-pliu- > *mo-xku- > *mokku-*(suH-?)-picu- > *su-xku- > *sukku- (> *sukko-) While the two elements 5su- and *mo- remain to be fully explicated, I suggest that the reconstruction of a pair of compounds provides a promising avenue for dealing with the similarities that we find linking the two stems *mokku- and *sukk-o-Issukw-c7-. While the preceding discussion remains for the time being a matter of speculation, it is hoped that further investigation will ultimately provide us with the means to determine the extent to which these conjectures are justified’ It is entirely possible that the attested Celtic corpora contain as yet unrecognized evidence that will enable us to say with confidence whether Celtic 5-kk-is in fact to be viewed as the regular outcome of the Indo-European sequence 5-pk- and whether the presence of this sequence led to the otherwise unexpected appearance of a Celtic short vowel in the preceding syllable.
Eric Hamp (pers. comm.) has suggested the possibility that Welsh buwch and Breton buc’h, which correspond to Irish bo ‘cow’, are relevant to this discussion. Perhaps here too the may be traced back to the final element of a •-pku-compound, in this case containing “roHu- (thus ••cattle-stock.). One place where one might seek such confirmatory evidence, in addition to the livestock terms discussed here, is among labial-final stems to which a velar suffix has been added (e.g. etyma of the type .CPP-ko-). 1 am not aware of any Critic forms that have been traced to formations of this sort, but such a line of inquiry might prove fruitful.

HAMP, E. P., 1987: `The pig in ancient Northern Europe’, in S. Nacev Skomal and E. C. Polome (eds), Proto-Indo-European: the archaeology of a linguistic problem (studies in honor of Marija Gimbutas), 185-90. Washington. HAMP, E. P., 1989: ‘North European pigs and phonology’, ZCP 43, 192-3. KELLY, F., 1998: Early Irish farming: a study based mainly on the taw-texts of the 7th and 8th centuries AD. Dublin. NANCE, R. M., 1938: A new Cornish-English dictionary. St Ives. THURNEYSEN, R., 1975: A grammar of Old Irish. Dublin. VENDRYES, J., 1959—: Lexique itymologique de tirlandais ancien. Dublin and Paris. WAGNER, H., 1954: •Varia 4. Ir. broc, kymr. broth “Dachs”‘, ZCP 24, 92-3.


Interessante è la radice proto-indoeuropea ḱūon-, ḱun- che indica il cane, animale con olfatto finissimo, proprio come il maiale Su- indica il suono che emette il maiale che grufola ed è anche la radice che in varie lingue indica il grifo, il grugno del maiale. Inoltre la radice ie. che identifica succo, scrofa e parto è la stessa e fa pensare che il parto abbia la stessa radice proprio perché prima del parto si rompono le acque (liquido) ed il figlio è il “succo dei genitori”. In inglese sow significa sia scrofa, come sostantivo, sia seminare, spargere, come verbo.

Da “The American Heritage Dictionary Indo-European Roots Appendice“:

To strew.
Derivatives include sprawl, sperm1, and sporadic.
I. Zero-grade form *spr‑.
1.sprawl, from Old English sprēawlian, to sprawl, from Germanic *spr‑.
2.Extended form *spreud‑.
a. sprout, from Old English -sprūtan, to sprout (only in ā-sprūtan, to sprout forth);
b. spritz, spritzer, from Middle High German sprützen, to spurt, spray;
c. sprit, from Old English sprēot, pole (< “sprout, stem”);
d. bowsprit, from Middle Low German bōchsprēt, bowsprit. a-d all from Germanic *sprūt‑.
3. Extended form *spreit‑. spray2, spread, from Old English -sprǣdan, to spread, from Germanic *spraidjan.
II. Basic form *sper‑.
1. Suffixed form *sper-yo‑. Diaspora, from Greek speirein, to scatter, with derivative sporā, a scattering, sowing (see III. 1.).
2. Suffixed form *sper-mn̥. sperm1, from Greek sperma, sperm, seed (< “that which is scattered”).
III. O-grade form *spor‑.
1. Suffixed form *spor-ā‑. spore, sporo-, from Greek sporā, a sowing, seed.
2. Suffixed form *spor-n̥d‑. sporadic, from Greek sporas (stem sporad‑), scattered, dispersed.
IV. Extended Germanic root *sprē(w)‑. spray1, from Middle Dutch spraeien, sprayen, to sprinkle, from Germanic *sprēwjan.
[Pokorny 2. (s)p(h)er‑ 993.]
Pig. Oldest form *suhx‑, becoming *sū‑; probably a derivative of seuə-1.
1. Suffixed form *suə-īno‑.
a. swine, from Old English swīn, swine;
b. keelson, from Old Norse svīn, swine. Both a and b from Germanic *swīnam.
2. Suffixed reduced form *su-kā‑.
I. hog, from Old English hogg, hog, from British Celtic *hukk‑, from Celtic expressive form *sukko‑, swine, snout of a swine;
II. socket, from Anglo-Norman soc, plowshare, perhaps from Celtic *sukko‑.
b. sow2, from Old English sugu, sow, from Germanic *sugō.
3. Basic form *sū‑. sow2, from Old English sū, from Germanic *sū‑.
4. soil2, from Latin sūs, pig.
5. Hyades, hyena; hyoscine, from Greek hūs, swine.
[Pokorny sū̆-s 1038.]
To give birth. Oldest form *suhx-.
Suffixed zero-grade form in derivative noun *su(hx)-nu‑, son. son, from Old English sunu, son, from Germanic *sunuz.
[Pokorny 2. seu‑ 913.]
See also sū-.
To take liquid. Oldest form *suhx-.
Derivatives include soup, soak, and succulent.
I. Suffixed zero-grade form *suə-yo‑, contracted to *sū-yo‑. hyetal; isohyet, from Greek hūetos, rain, from hūein, to rain.
II. Possible extended zero-grade form *sūb‑.

a. sup1, from Old English sūpan, sūpian, to drink, sip;
b. soup, sup2, from Old French soup(e), soup;
c. sopaipilla, from Old Spanish sopa, food soaked in liquid. a-c all from Germanic *sūp‑.

a. sop, from Old English sopp‑ in soppcuppe, cup for dipping bread in, from Germanic *supp‑;
b. sip, from Middle English sippen, to sip, from a source probably akin to Low German sippen, to sip, possibly from Germanic *supp‑.
III. Possible extended zero-grade form *sūg‑.
1. suck, from Old English sūcan, to suck, from Germanic *sūk‑.
2. soak, from Old English socian, to steep, from Germanic shortened form *sukōn.
3. suction, suctorial; prosciutto, from Latin sūgere, to suck.
4. Variant form *sūk‑. succulent, from Latin sūcus, succus, juice.
[Pokorny 1. seu‑ 912.] ‌‌kwon-
Dog. Oldest form *k̑won‑, becoming *kwon‑ in centum languages.
1. cynic; cynosure, Procyon, quinsy, from Greek kuōn, dog.
2. Suffixed zero-grade form *kwn̥-to‑.
a. hound, from Old English hund, dog;
b. dachshund, from Old High German hunt, dog;
c. keeshond, from Middle Dutch hond, dog. a-c all from Germanic *hundaz.
3. Nominative form *kwō. corgi, from Welsh ci, dog.
4. Variant *kan-i‑. canaille, canary, canicular, canine, chenille, kennel1, from Latin canis, dog.
[Pokorny k̑u̯on‑ 632.] Sper-
Per spargere. I derivati ​​includono sprawl , sperm 1 e sporadic.

I. Forma zero-grado * spr‑ .
1. sprawl , dall’inglese antico sprēawlian , a sprawl, dal germanico * spr‑ .
2. Forma estesa * spreud‑ .
a. germogliare , dall’antico inglese -sprūtan , a germogliare (solo in ā-sprūtan , a germogliare);
b. spritz , spritz , dal medio alto tedesco sprützen , a spurt, spray;
c. spirito , dall’antico inglese sprēot , pole (<“sprout, stem”);
d. bompresso , dal medio basso tedesco bōchsprēt , bompresso. e tutto dal germanico * sprūt‑ .
3. Forma estesa * spreit‑ . spray 2 , spread , dall’antico inglese -sprǣdan , a spread, dal germanico * spraidjan .
II. Forma di base * sper‑ .
1. Forma suffissa * sper-yo‑ . Diaspora , dal greco speirein , spargere, con sporā derivato , una dispersione, semina (vedi III. 1. ).
2. Forma suffissa * sper-mn̥ . sperma 1 , dal greco sperma , sperma, seme (<“ciò che è sparso”).
III. Modulo O-grade * spor‑ .
1. Forma suffissa * spor-ā‑ . spora , sporo- , dal greco sporā , una semina, seme.
2. Forma suffissa * spor-n̥d‑ . sporadico , dal greco sporas (radice sporad‑ ), sparso, disperso.
IV. Radice germanica estesa * sprē (w) – . spray 1 , dal medio olandese spraeien , sprayen , to cospargere, dal germanico * sprēwjan .
[Pokorny 2. (s) p (h) er‑ 993.] Su-
Pig. Forma più antica * suh x – , che diventa * sū‑ ; probabilmente un derivato di seuə- 1 .

1. Forma suffissa * suə-īno‑ .
a. suina , dall’inglese antico swīn , suina;
b. keelson , dal norreno svīn , suino. Sia a che b dal germanico * swīnam .
2. Forma ridotta con suffisso * su-kā‑ .

I. maiale , dall’inglese antico hogg , maiale, dal celtico britannico * hukk- , dalla forma espressiva celtica * sukko- , maiale, muso di suino;
II. presa , dall’anglo-normanno soc , vomere, forse dal celtico * sukko‑ .
b. scrofa , da antico inglese sugu , scrofa, da germanico * Sugo .
3. Forma di base * sū‑ . scrofa, dall’inglese antico sū , dal germanico * sū‑ .
4. fango (che sguazza nel), dal latino sūs , maiale.
5. Iadi , iena ; hyoscine , dal greco hūs , suino.
[Pokorny sū̆-s 1038.]
Seuə- 1 
partorire. Forma più vecchia * suh x -.

Forma con suffisso zero-grado nel nome derivato * su (h x ) -nu‑ , figlio. figlio , dall’inglese antico sunu , figlio, dal germanico * sunuz .
[Pokorny 2. seu‑ 913.]
Vedi anche sū- .
Seuə- 2 
prendere liquido. Forma più vecchia * suh x -. I derivati ​​includono zuppa , ammollo e succulenta.
I. Forma con suffisso zero-grado * suə-yo‑ , contratto con * sū-yo‑ . hyetal ; isohyet , dal greco hūetos , pioggia, da hūein , a pioggia.

II. Possibile forma zero-grado estesa * sūb‑ .
a. sup 1 , dall’inglese antico sūpan , sūpian , to drink, sip;
b. zuppa , sup 2 , da zuppa francese antica (e) , zuppa;
c. sopaipilla , dall’antica sopa spagnola , cibo imbevuto di liquido. ac tutto dal germanico * sūp‑ .
a. sop , dall’inglese antico sopp- in soppcuppe , tazza per intingere il pane, dal tedesco * supp- ;

b. sip , dal medio inglese sippen , to sip, da una fonte probabilmente simile al basso tedesco sippen , to sip, possibilmente dal germanico * supp- .
III. Possibile forma di zero grado estesa * sūg‑ .
1. succhiare , dall’inglese antico sūcan , succhiare, dal germanico * sūk‑ .
2. ammollo , dall’inglese antico socian , al ripido, dalla forma abbreviata germanica * sukōn .
3. aspirazione , suctorial ; prosciutto , dal latino sūgere , succhiare.
4. Forma variante * sūk‑ . succulento , dal latino sūcus , succus , succo di frutta.
[Pokorny 1. seu- 912.]”
Dog. Forma più vecchia * k̑won‑ , che diventa * kwon‑ nelle lingue centum.
1. cinico ; cynosure , Procyon , quinsy , dal greco kuon , cane.
2. Forma di zero grado con suffisso * kwn̥-to‑ .
a. segugio , dal vecchio inglese hund , cane;
b. bassotto , da caccia antico alto tedesco , cane;
c. keeshond , dal medio olandese hond , cane. ac tutto da germanico * hundaz .
3. Forma nominativa * kwō . corgi , dal gallese ci , cane.
4. Variante * kan-i‑ . canaille , canarino , canicolare , canino , ciniglia , canile 1 , dal latino canis , cane.
[Pokorny k̑u̯on‑ 632.]

Da “Online Etymology Dictionary“:

sow (v.)
Old English sawan “to scatter seed upon the ground or plant it in the earth, disseminate” (class VII strong verb; past tense seow, past participle sawen), from Proto-Germanic *sean (source also of Old Norse sa, Old Saxon saian, Middle Dutch sayen, Dutch zaaien, Old High German sawen, German säen, Gothic saian), from PIE root *sē- “to sow,” source of semen, season (n.), seed (n.). Figurative sense was in Old English.

Proto-Indo-European root meaning “to sow.”
It forms all or part of: disseminate; inseminate; seed; seme (adj.); semen; seminal; seminar; seminary; semination; sinsemilla; sow (v.); season.
It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Latin serere “to sow;” Old Church Slavonic sejo, sejati; Lithuanian sju, sti “to sow;” Old English sawan “to sow;” Old Prussian semen “seed,” Lithuanian smenys “seed of flax,” Old Church Slavonic seme, Old High German samo, German Same;Old English sed, sd “that which may be sown; an individual grain of seed.”

sow (n.)
Old English sugu, su “female of the swine,” from Proto-Germanic *su- (source also of Old Saxon, Old High German su, German Sau, Dutch zeug, Old Norse syr), from PIE root *su- (source also of Sanskrit sukarah “wild boar, swine;” Avestan hu “wild boar;” Greek hys “swine;” Latin sus “swine,” swinus “pertaining to swine;” Old Church Slavonic svinija “swine;” Lettish sivens “young pig;” Welsh hucc, Irish suig “swine; Old Irish socc “snout, plowshare”), possibly imitative of pig noise, a notion reinforced by the fact that Sanskrit sukharah means “maker of (the sound) ‘su.’ ” Related to swine. As a term of abuse for a woman, attested from c. 1500. Sow-bug “hog louse” is from 1750.

swine (n.)
Old English swin “pig, hog, wild boar,” from Proto-Germanic *sweina- (source also of Old Saxon, Old Frisian Middle Low German, Old High German swin, Middle Dutch swijn, Dutch zwijn, German Schwein, Old Norse, Swedish, Danish svin), neuter adjective (with suffix *-ino-) from PIE *su- “pig” (see sow (n.)). The native word, largely ousted by pig. Applied to persons from late 14c. Phrase pearls before swine (mid-14c.) is from Matthew vii.6; an early English formation of it was:

“Ne ge ne wurpen eowre meregrotu toforan eowrum swynon.” [c. 1000]

The Latin word in the Gospel verse was confused in French with marguerite “daisy” (the “pearl” of the field), and in Dutch the expression became “roses before swine.” Swine-flu attested from 1921

hyena (n.)
mid-14c., from Old French hiene, from Latin hyaena, from Greek hyaina “hyena,” apparently a fem. formation from hys “pig,” from PIE *su- “swine” (see sow (n.)). With fem. suffix -aina. So called for its bristles. Applied to cruel, treacherous, and greedy persons at least since 1670s. Adjectival forms that have been attempted in English include hyenaish, hyenaesque, hyenic, hyenine, hyenoid.

star cluster in constellation Taurus (generally pictured as forming the head of the bull), late 14c., from Greek Hyades, popularly explained by the ancients as “rain-bringers” (from hyein “to rain”), because wet weather supposedly began coincidentally with their heliacal rising; but probably rather from hys “swine” (the popular Latin word for the star-group was Suculae “piglets, little pigs”), from PIE *su- “pig” (see sow (n.)). Grimm (“Teutonic Mythology”) lists the Anglo-Saxon glosses of Hyades as Raedgastran, Raedgasnan, Redgaesrum.

socket (n.)
c. 1300, “spearhead” (originally one shaped like a plowshare), from Anglo-French soket “spearhead, plowshare” (mid-13c.), diminutive of Old French soc “plowshare,” from Vulgar Latin *soccus, perhaps from a Gaulish source, from Celtic *sukko- (source also of Welsh swch “plowshare,” Middle Irish soc “plowshare”), properly “hog’s snout,” from PIE *su- “pig” (source also of Latin sus “swine;” see sow (n.) “female pig”).

Meaning “hollow part or piece for receiving and holding something” first recorded early 15c.; anatomical sense is from c. 1600; domestic electrical sense first recorded 1885. Socket wrench is attested from 1837. The verb is 1530s, from the noun. Related: Socketed; socketing.

son (n.)
Old English sunu “son, descendant,” from Proto-Germanic *sunus (source also of Old Saxon and Old Frisian sunu, Old Norse sonr, Danish søn, Swedish son, Middle Dutch sone, Dutch zoon, Old High German sunu, German Sohn, Gothic sunus “son”). The Germanic words are from PIE *su(e)-nu- “son” (source also of Sanskrit sunus, Greek huios, Avestan hunush, Armenian ustr, Lithuanian sūnus, Old Church Slavonic synu, Russian and Polish syn “son”), a derived noun from root *seue- (1) “to give birth” (source also of Sanskrit sauti “gives birth,” Old Irish suth “birth, offspring”).

Son of _____ as the title of a sequel to a book or movie is recorded from 1917 (“Son of Tarzan”). Most explanations for son of a gun (1708) are more than a century after its appearance. Henley (1903) describes it as meaning originally “a soldier’s bastard;” Smyth’s “Sailor’s Word-Book” (1867) describes it as “An epithet conveying contempt in a slight degree, and originally applied to boys born afloat, when women were permitted to accompany their husbands to sea ….”

dog (n.)
“quadruped of the genus Canis,” Old English docga, a late, rare word, used in at least one Middle English source in reference specifically to a powerful breed of canine; other early Middle English uses tend to be depreciatory or abusive. Its origin remains one of the great mysteries of English etymology.

The word forced out Old English hund (the general Germanic and Indo-European word, from root from PIE root *kwon-) by 16c. and subsequently was picked up in many continental languages (French dogue (16c.), Danish dogge, German Dogge (16c.)). The common Spanish word for “dog,” perro, also is a mystery word of unknown origin, perhaps from Iberian. A group of Slavic “dog” words (Old Church Slavonic pisu, Polish pies, Serbo-Croatian pas) likewise is of unknown origin.

In reference to persons, by c. 1200 in abuse or contempt as “a mean, worthless fellow, currish, sneaking scoundrel.” Playfully abusive sense of “rakish man,” especially if young, “a sport, a gallant” is from 1610s. Slang meaning “ugly woman” is from 1930s; that of “sexually aggressive man” is from 1950s.

Many expressions — a dog’s life (c. 1600), go to the dogs (1610s), dog-cheap (1520s), etc. — reflect the earlier hard use of the animals as hunting accessories, not pets. In ancient times, “the dog” was the worst throw in dice (attested in Greek, Latin, and Sanskrit, where the word for “the lucky player” was literally “the dog-killer”), which plausibly explains the Greek word for “danger,” kindynos, which appears to be “play the dog” (but Beekes is against this).

Notwithstanding, as a dog hath a day, so may I perchance have time to declare it in deeds. [Princess Elizabeth, 1550]
Meaning “something poor or mediocre, a failure” is by 1936 in U.S. slang. From late 14c. as the name for a heavy metal clamp of some kind. Dog’s age “a long time” is by 1836. Adjectival phrase dog-eat-dog “ruthlessly competitive” is by 1850s. Phrase put on the dog “get dressed up” (1934) may be from comparison of dog collars to the stiff stand-up shirt collars that in the 1890s were the height of male fashion (and were known as dog-collars from at least 1883).

“And Caesar’s spirit, ranging for revenge,
With Ate by his side come hot from Hell,
Shall in these confines with a monarch’s voice
Cry Havoc! and let slip the dogs of war;”
[Shakespeare, “Julius Caesar”]

Proto-Indo-European root meaning “dog.”

It forms all or part of: canaille; canary; canicular; canid; canine; chenille; corgi; cynic; cynical; cynosure; dachshund; hound; kennel; Procyon; quinsy.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit svan-, Avestan spa, Greek kyōn, Latin canis, Old English hund, Old High German hunt, Old Irish cu, Welsh ci, Russian sobaka (apparently from an Iranian source such as Median spaka), Armenian shun, Lithuanian šuo “dog.”

Sequani Sequana Senna Sequani Saona Souconna Sucellus Nome Kuno



Seggugnagum, de Suggugnago (1156; forse si tratta dello stesso documento), de Secugnago (1174), de Sucugnago (1189).
•• D. Olivieri ipotizza che la forma Seggugnagum debba rappresentare un Seccugnagum, per cui il toponimo potrebbe essere un prediale in -ācum da un NP lat. Sicconius, Secconius, o forse anche Secundius, come ritiene piuttosto G. B. Pellegrini.
Secconius è accostabile al NP di origine celt. Secco, da secco- (cfr. anche Seccionius e Seccus). Se la forma Seggugnagum fosse valida, Secugnago potrebbe anche risalire a un personale come Segonius o *Segunius (cfr. Segonus, Sego), dal gall. sego- (e segu-) ‘forza, vigore, vittoria’, senza escludere una variante *seco- attestata forse in nomi quali Vo-secunnus, Secios e Securinius. Inoltre pare almeno altrettanto probabile un *Sucunius, *Suconius, Soconius, da su-con- ‘buon lupo’, da cuno-, coni-, cone- ‘cane’, ‘lupo’; cfr., tra l’altro, Suconia e Cunia, e il (fundum) Succonianum indicato nella Tabula Alimentaria di Veleia (5, 89).
C. Marcato (1990); G. B. Pellegrini (1990b): 321; X. Delamarre (2007); X. Delamarre (2008): 268-9, 282, 131-2; X. Delamarre (2012): 243.

PLACE-NAMES OF THE EBRO VALLEY: THEIR LINGUISTIC ORIGINS“, Leonard A. Curchin, Palaeohispanica 8, (2008), pp. 13-33:

“Succosa. Although numerous Gaulish personal names begin with Suc- (Sucarus, Sucinius, Sucomus etc.) from *su- “good, well” (Evans 1966: 257-258), the double “c” in Succosa suggests we are dealing with Celtic *succo- “pig” (Old Irish socc, Old Welsh huch, glossed sus); therefore, “Pig-town”. The ending -osa is paralleled by Tolosa (Narbonensis), Metercosa (Carpetania), Dertosa and Egosa (Cataluña).11